《Learning How To Learn》



create chuck

  1. Focused attention
  2. understand
  3. context
    • practice to help you gain mastery and a sense of the big-picture context
  • transfer: a chunk you have mastered in one area help you learn chunks in another areas


  1. bottonm up: practice help you both build and strengthen
  2. top down :what you are learning and where it fits in

getting your learning on track

  1. importance of recall
    • 在不同的地方学习
  2. illusions of competence in learning
    • you think it is easier to look at the book instead of recalling
    • when they have Google open right in front of them, it provides the illusion that the material is also in their brains

    • mini-testing
    • Minimize highlighting
    • mistakes
    • deliberate practice
  3. mini-testing
  4. value of making mistakes


what motivate you? neuromodulator system:

  1. Acetylcholine(乙酰胆碱)
    • important for focused learning new long mem
  2. dopamine(多巴胺)
    • 快感
    • 缺少会得帕金森
  3. serotonin(血清素)
    • lower serotonin means risk taking behavior
    • Prozac(百忧解) raises the level of Serotonin activity
  • emotion
  • amygdala(杏仁核)

Library of chucks

  • sequential
  • Holistic




  • valuable:public speaking, tennis, piano



  • minimizing your use of willpower
  • chucking is related to habit. habit is an energy saver for us.

habits have 4 parts:

  1. cue
    • the trigger that launches you into zombie mode.
      1. location
      2. time
      3. how you feel
      4. reactions
  2. routine
    1. plan : rewire your old habit. Develope a new ritual(仪式)
  3. reward 1.
  4. belief

Process vs product

  • focus on process not on product
  • The product triggers the pain that causes you to procrastinate

juggling life and learning

  1. weekly list of key tasks
  2. Daily to do list: write it down the evening before write down : free your working memory
    • plan your quitting time
    • do most difficult and most dislike first

long term memory

  • glial cell(胶质细胞)
    • astrocytes(星形胶质细胞)(最多)
  • memory palace technique

week4:Renaissance Learning and Unlocking Your Potential

how to more profitably interact with fellow learners, how to recognize your own strengths, and how to avoid the ‘imposter syndrome.’(冒名顶替综合征)

  • physical exercise
  • 大脑发展的黄金时期

  • The visual cortex reached maturation in childhood
  • The prefrontal cortex is the last part of the cortex to mature

  • learn using metaphor and analogy
  • work profitably with teammates
  • perform well on tests


  • right hemisphere help us step back and put our work into big picture perspective